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In 1926 antibiotic kill curve norfloxacin 400mg, imperial production (concentrated primarily in India antibiotic use in livestock generic norfloxacin 400mg, Trinidad do antibiotics for acne work best 400 mg norfloxacin, and Sarawak) was only 1 antibiotic resistant virus in hospitals cheap 400 mg norfloxacin. The department also placed great hopes on Iraq: "It is obvious that the discovery of a field with a production equivalent to that of Persia, in Iraq, with the completion of pipe lines to the Mediterranean would have a great effect on the oil situation. Part of the problem was that only one-tenth of imperial production actually found its way to Great Britain. In trying to find a way to address this imbalance, a supplementary note to the aforementioned report concluded that "it is very doubtful whether a preferential rate of duty on empire produced oil would have any useful effect. Of course, Middle Eastern oil could only be used if the major oil companies holding the concessions in Persian and Iraq invested in expanding local pipeline capacity. Signatories also agreed to abide by a complicated pricing formula that used the price of oil at the Gulf of Mexico as the benchmark. Companies operating in the Middle East had little incentive to undercharge their customers when they could always add the "phantom freight" from Texas to the price they added to the f. Until a second basing-point in Abadan was established in 1945, every government "strong" or not, paid for "oil as if it had been pumped and shipped from Texas, a costly fantasy to which all the great powers of the era, capitalist and noncapitalist alike, duly adhered. Only two great powers, the United States and Soviet Union, enjoyed the luxury of significant Washington secured legal authority to enforce conservation, "it is [too] early to say whether it is likely to be finally successful. The Board of Trade (backed by departments such as the Air Ministry) took umbrage at the idea of granting control over a vital resource to the military. Hermon-Hodge (Joint Secretary), "Oil Fuel Board: Composition and Terms of Reference," 01 May 1925, O. The Oil Fuel board was initially chaired by James Stanhope (Civil Lord of the Admiralty), while William Peel (First Commissioner of Works) served as the president. As for the Army, assuming a starting force of five infantry and one cavalry divisions that would swell to 39 divisions by the end of the first year of hostilities, its annual demand for motor fuel would total 600,000 tons. The report estimated that Britain would require 470 tankers, with an average carrying capacity of 7,300 tons. In 1923, Britain could only rely upon 312 tankers, whose gross carrying capacity was 1,691,257 tons, about half of what was required. A further 24,000 tons would be required to carry the 83,000 tons of light petroleum products required by the Admiralty annually in wartime. Existing stocks on January 1926 were 3,190,800 tons short of the desired figure, which meant that if war broke out that year, the Admiralty would have to import an additional 3,768,740 tons on top of the aforementioned 3,893,890 tons to make up the existing shortfall in reserves (as well as fuel British tankers). As for the additional oil itself, the entire amount would have to be imported from the United States, Mexico, or Venezuela, with 2,243,650 tons (almost 60%) going to Great Britain, while the remainder was divided between eleven different stations, the most important of which was Singapore, which would require an additional 680,000 tons. The report also suggested "that every effort should be made to encourage and expedite research on the problem of [domestic] Oil Production," including synthetic production. During its existence, the Oil Board produced thirteen annual reports, while its various sub-committees produced dozens of studies concerning everything from synthetic oil production to the size and shape of oil containers to be used by the Army. Civilian consumption would rise from 4,879,000 tons of all oil products to 7,459,000 tons between 1925 and 1937. Britain would require 467 tankers of over 3,000 tons to transport the necessary imports (221 for military needs, 136 going to Great Britain for civilian purposes, and 110 to supply the civilian needs throughout the empire). The Oil Board estimated that, by 1937, 482 tankers of British, Admiralty, and neutral registry (including U. As of 1926, however, there was a shortage of sixty-two tankers: 459 required 103 Hermon-Hodge (Oil Board), "First Annual Report: Note by the Secretary," 25 February 1927, O. The Oil Board concluded that while the "safety and control" of the Persian oilfields was "a matter of vital importance," Britain had to maintain the goodwill of the United States, since "a very large part of the total requirements of the Empire has to be met by the imports of refined products from the United States of America. Higher than expected increases in civilian consumption exacerbated these shortages, which meant that even the imposition of rationing would not eliminate the deficit. The shortage of tankers was endemic throughout the interwar period, and between 1926 and 1935, the shortfall (even assuming civilian rationing) ranged from a low of three in 1929 to a high of ninety-eight in 1935. Figures in brackets refer to the deficit remaining following the enactment of civilian rationing. Before and immediately after the First World War, Shell had dominated the Venezuelan oil industry.

Less commonly antibiotic natural alternatives safe norfloxacin 400 mg, meningitis is a result of spread of organisms from structures adjacent to the brain (sinusitis antibiotic eye ointment proven 400mg norfloxacin, otitis) antibiotics for acne make acne worse effective norfloxacin 400 mg. This 52-year-old man presented with bilateral visual distortion and some left leg weakness infection japanese movie purchase 400 mg norfloxacin. The inflammatory reaction can disrupt the blood-brain barrier; obstruct spinal fluid absorptive pathways, causing hydrocephalus and cellular swelling; or cause a vasculitis of subarachnoid or penetrating cortical blood vessels with resulting cerebral ischemia or infarction. The major causes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae (51%) and Neisseria meninigitis (37%). Staphylococcus aureus and, since a vaccine became available, Haemophilus influenzae are uncommon causes of community-acquired meningitis. Viral meningitis may clinically mimic bacterial meningitis, but in most cases are selflimiting. The clinical signs of acute bacterial meningitis are headache, fever, stiff neck, photophobia, and an alteration of mental status. Focal neurologic signs can occur either from ischemia of underlying brain or from damage to cranial nerves as they pass through the subarachnoid space. In a series of adults with acute bacterial meningitis,87 97% of patients had fever, 87% nuchal rigidity, and 84% headache. Nausea or vomiting was present in 55%, confusion in 56%, and a decreased level of consciousness in 51%. Papilledema was identified in only 2% of patients, although it was not tested in almost half. Seizure activity occurred in 25% of patients, but was always within 24 hours of the clinical diagnosis of acute meningitis. Over 40% of the patients had been partially treated before the diagnosis was established, so that in 30% of patients neither Gram stain nor cultures were positive. However, the classic triad of fever, nuchal rigidity, and alteration of mental status was present in only 44% of patients in a large series ofcommunity-acquiredmeningitis. Subacute or chronic meningitis runs an indolent course and may be accompanied by the same symptoms, but also may occur in the absence of fever in debilitated or immunesuppressed patients. Both acute and chronic meningitis may be characterized only by lethargy, stupor, or coma in the absence of the other common signs. However, the impairment of consciousness in each of these cases is primarily due to the immunologic processes concerned with the infection rather than structural causes (see Chapter 5). The examination should include careful evaluation of nuchal rigidity even in patients who are stuporous. Attempting to flex the neck in a patient with meningitis may lead to gri- macing and a rapid flexion of knees and hips (Brudzinski sign). If one flexes the thigh to the right angle with the axis of the trunk, the patient grimaces and resists extension of the leg on the thigh (Kernig sign). Measurement of beta-trace protein in the blood and discharge fluid is more accurate. Clinically, such children rapidly lose consciousness and develop hyperpnea disproportionate to the degree of fever. The pupils dilate, at first moderately and then widely, then fix, and the child develops decerebrate motor signs. In elderly patients, bacterial meningitis sometimes presents as insidiously developing stupor or coma in which there may be focal neurologic signs but little evidence of severe systemic illness or stiff neck. In one series, 50% of such patients with meningitis were admitted to the hospital with another and incorrect diagnosis. They further argue that the presence of a mass lesion suggests that the neurologic signs are not a result of meningitis alone and that lumbar puncture is probably unnecessary. Finally, even in the absence of a mass lesion, obliteration of the perimesencephalic cisterns or descent of the tonsils below the foramen magnum is a major risk factor for the development of herniation after a lumbar puncture.

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Protestant churches of one sort or another are to be found in all parts of the country infection between toes effective norfloxacin 400 mg, including some traditional Amerindian communities formerly regarded as a special preserve of the Roman Catholic religious orders bacteria 5 facts effective norfloxacin 400mg. The Protestants have built schools virus protection for iphone quality 400 mg norfloxacin, just as the Roman Catholic Church has done virus 38 effective 400 mg norfloxacin, and some denominations are deeply involved in 124 the Society and Its Environment social services, for nonmembers as well as their own congregations. In 1989 a broad range of Protestant churches joined forces to create the Evangelical Confederation of Colombia, which does not include every denomination but does to a large extent speak for the Protestant churches generally. More unusual was the creation of explicitly evangelical political parties to take part in elections for the 1991 Constituent Assembly: the Christian Union and the Christian National Party. Presenting a joint ticket, they elected two of the 70 members of the assembly, and one of their delegates was named to head a key committee. Their participation, however, was for the most part narrowly focused on the issue of religious liberty and legal equality of all denominations, and the final constitutional text ostensibly satisfied these demands. Protestant parties also have continued taking part in elections, with occasional success. Other Religious Expressions Religion in Colombia of course consists of more than Roman Catholics and Protestants and interaction between the two. African and Amerindian religious rites and beliefs have survived among the Afro-Colombian and Amerindian populations, generally in some combination with Christian elements. Indeed, there are distinct congregations that expressly identify themselves in terms of syncretism. There is a small Jewish community, most of which has its origin in the limited and restricted immigration of European Jews during the second quarter of the twentieth century. By 2005 the community numbered only about 4,200, down from about 25,000 in the 1980s. Many emigrated because criminal and terrorist groups targeted the relatively well-off Jewish community for kidnappings for ransom. Lebanese-usually referred to as Turks (turcos) or Syrians because they came from the Christian Lebanese part of Syria that formerly belonged to Turkey-are active in commerce, particularly in the port cities of Barranquilla, Buenaventura, and Cartagena. Education Although individual Colombians have excelled in literature and other fields of intellectual endeavor, the country is not renowned for the quality of its public and private educational institutions. With a few temporary exceptions, public education of the lower-income masses has not received high priority. Over the years, formal education instead catered to the middle and upper social strata, with emphasis on preparing their children for the more prestigious professions (law in particular). As good an indicator as any of the lack of broad educational achievement was a persistently low rate of adult literacy, albeit close to the norm for Latin America. Roughly a third of Colombians 15 years of age or older could read in 1900, and the rate barely exceeded one-half of the population in 1930. Moreover, as late as 1950 only 1 percent of Colombians received exposure to university-level training. Almost all of them were males because only since the 1930s had women been allowed to enter Colombian universities. Basic Education Under the 1991 constitution, the basic education cycle is free and compulsory for all Colombian children between the ages of five and 15 and consists, at a minimum, of one year of preprimary education (kindergarten), five years of primary school, and the first four years of secondary education. However, the schooling offered does not always meet these guidelines, especially in rural areas. For those who have completed the primary cycle successfully, secondary education lasting up to six years is theoretically available. All standard indicators show significant advances over the last halfcentury in providing Colombians with at least the bare minimum of skills required to function effectively as members of contemporary society. At the most basic level, adult literacy, Colombia has done even better than Cuba, where the campaign to extirpate illiteracy was justly celebrated but began from a much higher starting point. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the rate of illiteracy had fallen (naturally depending on the definition used) to 8 percent, still more than twice the figure for Cuba or for Argentina but better than Brazil (above 12 percent) and of an order wholly different from the figure at mid-twentieth century. Also positive was the trend in coverage of primary education, whether gross coverage (the relation between total school attendance and the population of primary school age) or net coverage (referring only to the attendance of children actually of primary age).

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Jill Austin and Jennifer Brier (Chicago: Chicago History Museum infection genetics and evolution best 400mg norfloxacin, 2011) antibiotic resistant bacteria in dogs effective 400mg norfloxacin, 109-126; Emily Kazyak polysorbate 80 antimicrobial cheap 400mg norfloxacin, "Midwest or Lesbian Consumption and the Erasure of Poverty in Lesbian and Gay Studies bacteria science projects quality norfloxacin 400mg," in Out in Theory: the Emergence of Lesbian and Gay Anthropology, eds. Moore, Invisible Families: Gay Identities, Relationships, and Motherhood among Black Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011); Mignon R. Moore, "Intersectionality and the Study of Black, Sexual Minority Women," Gender & Society 26, no. Shields, "Gender: An Intersectionality Perspective," Sex Roles 59 (2008): 301-311; Megan Sinnott, "Public Sex: the Geography of Female Homoeroticism and the (In)Visibility of Female Sexualities," in Out in Public: Reinventing Lesbian/Gay Anthropology in a Globalizing World, eds. See also Gonz lez and Hern ndez, Harris, Hutchins, Roscoe, Stryker, and Sueyoshi (this volume). For example, though women were granted the right to vote in 1920, Jim Crow laws in the southern states kept African American women (and men) from the voting booths until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Norton, 1963); Daniel Horowitz, Betty Friedan and the Making of the Feminine Mystique: the American Left, the Cold War and Modern Feminism (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000). Springate focusing their efforts on suffrage shifted their focus to labor and social welfare legislation, with some women choosing to work within the political party system or within the government itself, and others working in private organizations or with labor organizers. Women who had been working within the labor and racial justice movements prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment continued their work. This intersectional analysis, which includes working women and labor organizers as well as women working for racial justice, puts lie to the idea of a Second Wave of feminism that is discontinuous from the reform movements of the early twentieth century and which has its roots in white, middle-class experience. Engraved by William Roberts, couples Esther Lape and Elizabeth from Common Council, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (New Read, and Nancy Cook and Marion York: the Council, 1840-1870). Frances Kellor and Bayard Rustin in social reform movements; the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, Howard Wallace and the Lesbian/Gay Labor Alliance, Emily Blackwell and other workers and union organizers in labor history (Figures 2 to 4). The Marine Cooks and Stewards Union from the Depression to the Cold War," in My Desire for History, 294-320; Kitty Krupat and Patrick McCreery, Out At Work: Building a Gay-Labor Alliance (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001). Emily Blackwell was the third woman to earn a medical degree in the United States; in 1857, she cofounded the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children at East 7th Street near Tompkins Square Park (an expansion of the New York Dispensary for Poor Women and Children founded by her sister, Dr. Springate Working with Intersectionality Intersectional analysis that takes several axes of identity into consideration can be challenging to implement. These serve both to oppose dominant narratives and hegemonic power and as a way to enrich our understanding of the past by including multiple experiences and voices. Elsa Barkley Brown describes the Creole phenomenon of "gumbo ya-ya," where everyone talks at once, telling their stories in connection and in dialogue with one another, as a nonlinear approach to intersectionality and multivocality. Philosopher Alison Wylie advocates "integrity in scholarship" to correct for any cacophony of competing narratives. This integrity includes being fair to the evidence and a methodological multivocality that incorporates multiple sources of information in support of interpretations. Below, I provide several examples of how these identities intersect with each other. While not exhaustive, they give a sense of the importance and impact of intersectional analysis. Intersectional Analysis Historian Judith Bennett demonstrates that the sexual identity of "lesbian" (and by analogy other sexual identities) is unstable and unfixed by describing the many different types of lesbian, including butch (more masculine in appearance and behavior), femme (more feminine in appearance and behavior), vanilla (not sexually radical), sexually radical. We recognize that someone may identify as straight, gay, or bisexual without having had sex, or during periods of their lives where they are not sexually active. But what about studying people in the past, whose sexual activity remains uncertain John Howard, Men Like That: A Southern Queer History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 5. Springate Bennett proposed the concept of "lesbian-like" for studying women in the past whose lives might have particularly offered opportunities for samesex love; who resisted norms of feminine behavior based on heterosexual marriage; and who lived in circumstances that allowed them to nurture and support other women. In urban areas, female masculinity is often associated with lesbian identity, while in rural areas it is acceptable for women, regardless of their sexuality, to have a more masculine gender presentation. Bennett, History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 2006). Kessler Lecture, December 6, 1996, at the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York).

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