Co-Director, Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
The most frequent symptoms that were reported by Purtell and colleagues during a study of 50 unmistakable cases of hysteria (as compared with a control group of 50 healthy women) included the following: headache osbon erectile dysfunction pump best forzest 20mg, blurred vision jack3d impotence quality forzest 20 mg, lump in the throat impotence ring order 20mg forzest, loss of voice treatment of erectile dysfunction in unani medicine proven forzest 20 mg, dyspnea, palpitation, anxiety attacks, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, unusual food allergies, severe menstrual pain, urinary retention, sexual indifference, painful intercourse, paresthesias, dizzy spells, nervousness, and easy crying. The mental examination of the patient with hysteria demonstrates a number of characteristic findings. Questions regarding the chief complaint usually elicit a vague reply or the narration of a series of incidents or problems, many of which prove to have little or no relevance to the question. Memory defects (amnesic gaps) are usually demonstrated while the history is being taken; the patient appears to have forgotten important segments of the history, some of which she had clearly described in the past and are part of the medical record. The description of symptoms may be dramatic and exaggerated and not in accord with the facts as elicited from other members of the family. Often, a rather casual demeanor is manifest, the patient insisting that everything in her life is quite normal and controlled, when, in fact, her medical record is checkered with instances of dramatic behavior and unexplained illness. This calm attitude toward a turbulent illness and seemingly disabling physical signs is so common that it has been singled out as an important characteristic of hysteria, la belle indifference. Other patients, however, are obviously tense and anxious and report frank anxiety attacks; or the patient may appear to be putting on an act, and demanding constant attention. Emotional reactions are superficial and scenes that are disturbing to others are quickly forgotten. Although many have commented on the rather youthful, girlish appearance and coquettish ("seductive") manner of the patients, these by no means characterize all patients. The abdomen may be diffusely and exceedingly tender but without other signs of abdominal disease. Accordingly, symptoms and signs that are beyond volitional control should not be accepted as manifestations of hysteria. Nevertheless, such attacks do occur and must be distinguished from cerebral cortical seizures and catalepsy. The lack of an aura, initiating cry, hurtful fall, or incontinence; the presence of peculiar movements such as grimacing, squirming, thrashing and flailing of the limbs, side-to-side motions of the head, and striking at or resisting those who offer assistance; the retention of consciousness during a motor seizure that involves both sides of the body; the long duration of the seizure, its abrupt termination by strong sensory stimulation, lack of postictal confusion, and failure to produce a rise in creatine kinase- are all typical of the hysterical attack. Sometimes hyperventilation will initiate an attack and is therefore a useful diagnostic maneuver. Both epilepsy, particularly of frontallobe type, and hysteria may occur in the same patient, a combination that invariably causes difficulty in diagnosis. Hysterical trances or fugues, in which the patient wanders about for hours or days and carries out complex acts, may simulate temporal lobe epilepsy or any of the conditions that lead to confusional psychosis or stupor. Here the most reliable point of differentiation comes from observation of the patient, who, if hysterical, is likely to indicate a degree of alertness and promptness of response not seen in temporal lobe seizures or confusional states. Following the episode, an interview with the patient- under the influence of hypnosis, strong suggestion, or midazolam or amobarbital- will often reveal memories of what happened during the episode. Hysterical Paralyses, Gait, Sensory Loss, and Tremors Hysterical palsies may involve an arm, a leg, one side of the body, or both legs. Movements are slow, tentative, and poorly sustained; often it can be demonstrated that the strength of voluntary movement is proportional to the resistance offered by the examiner, thus imparting a "give-way" character (page 52). One can detect by palpation that agonist and antagonist muscles are contracting simultaneously holding the limb in place rather than opposing the examiner, and when the resistance is suddenly withdrawn, there is no follow-through or rebound, as is normally the case. Other indicators have been devised to demonstrate inconsistencies with normal physiologic principles and a purposive lack of cooperation. The discrepancies are usually found by testing an agonist, antagonist, or fixator movement while the patient is focused on making an effort with another group of muscles. Muscular tone in the affected limbs is usually normal, but slight resistance may sometimes be found. Walking and standing may be impossible (astasia-abasia) or Special Neurologic Syndromes of Hysterical Origin A few hysterical syndromes occur with regularity and every physician may expect to encounter them. Hysterical Pain this may involve any part of the body; generalized or localized headache, "atypical facial pain," vague abdominal pain, and chronic back pain with camptocormia are the most frequent and troublesome. In many of these patients the response to analgesic drugs has been unusual or excessive, and some of them are addicted. The hysterical patient may respond readily to a placebo as though it were a potent drug, but it should be pointed out that this is a notoriously unreliable means of distinguishing hysterical pain from that of other diseases. A greater error is to mistake the pain of osteomyelitis or visceral tumor- before other symptoms have developed- for a manifestation of hysteria. Hysterical Vomiting this is often combined with pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen and results in unnecessary appendectomies and removal of pelvic organs in adolescent girls and young women.
Limited range of motion
Weakness and clumsiness of the hand
Schedule an appointment with a dentist for a routine cleaning and examination. Many dentists recommend having the teeth professionally cleaned every 6 months.
Too much iron in the body (hemochromatosis)
Biology of Nervous System Tumors In considering the biology of primary nervous system tumors impotence ginseng cheap 20mg forzest, one of the first problems is with the definition of neoplasia erectile dysfunction caused by heart medication best forzest 20 mg. It is well known that a number of lesions may simulate brain tumors in their clinical manifestations and histologic appearance but are really hamartomas and not true tumors erectile dysfunction 40s 20 mg forzest. A hamartoma is a "tumor-like formation that has its basis in maldevelopment" (Russell) and undergoes little change during the life of the host discount erectile dysfunction pills forzest 20 mg. The difficulty one encounters in distinguishing it from a true neoplasm, whose constituent cells multiply without restraint, is well illustrated by tuberous sclerosis and von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, where both hamartomas and neoplasms are found. In a number of mass lesions- such as certain cerebellar astrocytomas, bipolar astrocytomas of the pons and optic nerves, von Hippel-Lindau cerebellar cysts, and pineal teratomas- a clear distinction between neoplasms and hamartomas is often not possible. The many studies of the pathogenesis of brain tumors have gradually shed light on their origin. Johannes Muller (1838), in his atlas Structure and Function of Neoplasms, first enunciated the appealing idea that tumors might originate in embryonic cells left in the brain during development. This idea was elaborated by Cohnheim (1878), who postulated that the source of tumors was an anomaly of the embryonic anlage. Ribbert, in 1918, extended this hypothesis by postulating that the potential for differentiation of these stem cells would favor blastomatous growth. This CohnheimRibbert theory seems most applicable to tumors that arise from vestigial tissues, such as craniopharyngiomas, teratomas, lipomas, and chordomas, some of which are more like hamartomas than neoplasms. Although it is not a popular notion today, Bailey and Cushing attached the suffix blastoma to indicate all tumors composed of primitive-looking cells such as glioblastoma and medulloblastoma. One prominent theory is that most tumors arise from neoplastic transformation of mature adult cells (dedifferentiation). A normal astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, microgliocyte, or ependymocyte is transformed into a neoplastic cell and, as it multiplies, the daughter cells become variably anaplastic, the more so as the degree of malignancy increases. Medulloblastomas, polar spongioblastomas, optic nerve gliomas, and pinealomas occur mainly before the age of 20 years, and meningiomas and glioblastomas are most frequent in the sixth decade. Heredity figures importantly in the genesis of certain tumors, particularly retinoblastomas, neurofibromas, and hemangioblastomas. The rare familial disorders of multiple endocrine neoplasia and multiple hamartomas are associated with an increased incidence of anterior pituitary tumors and meningiomas, respectively. Glioblastomas and cerebral astrocytomas have also been reported occasionally in more than one member of a family, but the study of such families has not disclosed the operation of an identifiable genetic factor. Only in the gliomas associated with neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis and in the cerebellar hemangioblastoma of von Hippel-Lindau is there significant evidence of a hereditary determinant. Although there is no direct evidence for an association between viruses and primary tumors of the nervous system, epidemiologic and experimental data- drawn from studies of the human papillomavirus and the hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr, and human T-lymphotropic viruses- indicate that they may be a risk factor in certain human cancers. In transgenic mice, certain viruses are capable of inducing olfactory neuroblastomas and neurofibromas. Each of these viruses possesses a small number of genes that are incorporated in a cellular component of the nervous system (usually a dividing cell such as an astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, ependymocyte, endothelial cell, or lymphocyte). The virus is believed to thrive on the high levels of nucleotides and amino acid precursors and at the same time acts to force the cell from of its normal reproductive cycle into an unrestrained replicative cycle (Levine). Because of this capacity to transform the cellular genome, the virus product is called an oncogene; such oncogenes are capable of immortalizing, so to speak, the stimulated cell to form a tumor. Molecular and Genetic Features of Brain Tumors All of the above ideas have been expanded greatly by studies of the human genome, which have led to the identification of certain chromosomal aberrations linked to tumors of the nervous system. What has emerged from these studies is the view that the biogenesis and progression of brain tumors are a consequence of defects in the control of the cell cycle. Some molecular defects predispose to tumor genesis; others underlie subsequent progression and accelerated malignant transformation. In some instances, the initial predisposition is a genetic defect that is inherited by germline transmission and that the additional events arise as somatic genetic lesions. For example, mutations in genes that normally suppress cell proliferation may set the stage for tumor development. Typically, these inherited mutations affect only one of two copies of the tumor suppressor or gene. These notions are consistent with the observation that many of the gene defects that predispose to cancer are dominantly inherited. Among the first detectable changes are mutations that inactivate the tumor suppressor gene, p53 on chromosome 17p; over 50 percent of astrocytomas have deletions encompassing this gene.
Handwriting becomes small (micrographia) laptop causes erectile dysfunction purchase forzest 20 mg, tremulous erectile dysfunction tulsa buy 20mg forzest, and cramped impotence causes and cures proven 20mg forzest, as first noted by Charcot erectile dysfunction treatment natural generic forzest 20 mg. The voice softens and the speech seems hurried and monotonous and mumbling: the voice becomes less audible and finally the patient only whispers. Caekebeke and coworkers refer to the speech disorder as a "hypokinetic dysarthria"; they attribute it to respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory dysfunction. Falls do occur, but surprisingly infrequently given the degree of postural instability. Gait is typically improved by sensory guidance, as by holding the patient at the elbow. Obstacles such as door thresholds have the opposite effect, at times causing the patient to "freeze" in place. Getting in and out of a car or elevator or walking into a room or in a hall are then particularly difficult. Difficulty in turning over in bed is a characteristic feature as the illness advances, but the patient rarely volunteers this information; several of our patients have fallen out of bed at a frequency that suggests a connection to their reduced mobility. Shaving or applying lipstick becomes difficult, as the facial muscles become more immobile and rigid. Persistent extension or clawing of the toes, jaw clenching, and other fragments of dystonia, often painful, may enter the picture but are not usually early findings. Yet in the excitement of some unusual circumstance (as escaping from a fire, for example), the patient with all but the most advanced disease is capable of brief but remarkably effective movement (kinesis paradoxica). Regarding other elicitable neurologic signs, there is an inability to inhibit blinking in response to a tap over the bridge of the nose or glabella (Myerson sign), but grasp and suck reflexes are not present and buccal and jaw jerks are rarely enhanced. Commonly there is an impairment of upward gaze and convergence; if prominent or noted early in the disease, this sign suggests more the possibility of progressive supranuclear palsy. The bradykinesia may extend to eye movements, in that there is a delay in the initiation of gaze to one side, slowing of conjugate movements (decreased maximal saccadic velocity), hypometric saccades, and breakdown of pursuit movements into small saccades. Drooling is troublesome; an excess flow of saliva has been assumed, but actually the problem is one of failure to swallow with normal frequency. Seborrhea and excessive sweating are probably secondary as well, the former due to failure to cleanse the face sufficiently, the latter to the effects of the constant motor activity. The tendon reflexes vary, as they do in normal individuals, from being barely elicitable to brisk. Even when parkinsonian symptoms are confined to one side of the body, the reflexes are usually equal on the two sides, and the plantar responses are flexor. Exceptionally, the reflexes on the affected side are slightly brisker, which raises the question of corticospinal involvement; but the plantar reflex remains flexor. In these respects, the clinical picture differs from that of corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, in which rigidity, hyperactive tendon reflexes, and Babinski signs are combined with apraxia (see further on). There is a tendency to orthostatic hypotension and sometimes syncope; this has been attributed by Rajput and Rozdilsky to cell loss in the sympathetic ganglia. However, syncope is never as prominent as in the Shy-Drager type of striatonigral degeneration (page 925). It is worth mentioning that two of our younger Parkinson patients with recurrent syncope proved to have cardiac arrhythmias, which were cured by the insertion of a pacemaker, hence other causes of fainting are still to be considered. At times, Parkinson disease is complicated by a dementia, a feature that had been commented upon by Charcot. The reported frequency of this combination varies considerably, based on the selection of patients and type of testing. The incidence increases with advancing age, approaching 65 percent in Parkinson patients above 80 years of age, but it may be disabling even in patients in their late fifties. In the majority of patients, the mean period of time from inception of the disease to a chairbound state is 7. On the other hand, as many as one-third of cases are relatively mild and such patients may remain stable for 10 years or more. Much can still be gained from perusal of the study by Hoehn and Yahr, published in 1967, before the widespread use of L-dopa. Diagnosis Early in the course of Parkinson disease, when only a slight asymmetry of stride or an ineptitude of one hand is present and tremor has yet to appear and impart the unmistakable stamp of the disease, a number of small signs already mentioned may be helpful in diagnosis.
Restoration of circulation to the limb by surgical or other means resulted in some improvement of the regional neuropathy erectile dysfunction drugs cialis trusted forzest 20mg. Reviews of the literature on this subject are to be found in the writings of Chalk et al and Eames and Lange erectile dysfunction pump as seen on tv cheap forzest 20mg. A poorly understood but presumably localized ischemic neuropathy occurs in the region of arteriovenous shunts that have been placed for the purpose of dialysis erectile dysfunction medication options trusted forzest 20 mg. Complaints of transient diffuse tingling of the hand are not uncommon soon after creation of the shunt erectile dysfunction doctor dallas trusted 20 mg forzest, but only a few patients develop persistent forearm weakness and numbness and burning in the fingers, reflecting variable degrees of ulnar, radial, and median nerve and possibly also muscle ischemia. The possible role of an underlying uremic polyneuropathy in facilitating this neuropathy has not been studied. A progressive, symmetrical polyneuropathy due to systemic cholesterol embolism has been described by Bendixen and colleagues. An inflammatory and necrotizing arteritis surrounds embolic cholesterol material within small vessels and appears to account for the progression of symptoms. This neuropathic process is probably more often discovered at autopsy than it is in the clinic, being eclipsed during life by the cerebral manifestations of cholesterol embolism. The entire illness simulates the generalized polyneuropathy of a small-vessel polyarteritis. Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis infrequently produces subacute or chronic polyneuropathy, polyradiculopathy, or mononeuropathies. A painful, small-fiber sensory neuropathy has also been described by Hoitsma and colleagues. Involvement of a single nerve with sarcoid most often implicates the facial nerve (facial palsy), but sometimes multiple cranial nerves are affected in succession (see page 1183). Or, there may be weakness and reflex and sensory loss in the distribution of one or more spinal nerves or roots. The occurrence of large, irregular zones of sensory loss over the trunk is said to distinguish the neuropathy of sarcoidosis from other forms of mononeuropathy multiplex. This type of sensory loss, particularly when accompanied by pain, resembles diabetic radiculopathy (see earlier). Unlike the cases we have reported (Zuniga et al), in the series of 11 patients with sarcoid neuropathy studied by Said and colleagues, only 2 were known to have pulmonary sarcoidosis before the onset of neuropathic symptoms. Six had a focal or multifocal syndrome (including one with a clinical and electrophysiologic pattern that simulated multifocal conduction block). The remainder had a more nondescript symmetric polyneuropathy, one of acute onset. The pathologic changes in nerve and muscle biopsy specimens consisted mainly of epineurial granulomas and endoneurial inflammatory infiltrates, but there were indications of necrotizing vasculitis in 7 cases. Among the cases we studied, 6 of 10 had a subacute or chronic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It is notable that in only 2 of their patients were levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme elevated in the serum. Lyme Disease (See also page 618) the neuropathy that develops in 10 to 15 percent of patients with this disease takes several forms. Cranial nerve involvement is well known, uni- or bilateral facial palsy being by far the most frequent manifestation (page 1182). Other cranial nerves are from time to time also affected and the disease may affect almost any of the somatic roots, most evident in the cervical or lumbar ones. There may be radicular pain not unlike that of cervical or lumbar disc or plexus disease. The triad of cranial nerve palsies, radiculitis, and aseptic meningitis is characteristic of Lyme disease during its disseminated phase, i. As to peripheral neuropathy with Lyme disease, the clinical situation is more complex. Several patterns of neuropathy have been recognized and they tend to appear some months after the Lyme infection and may last for years hence observing no seasonal pattern.