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Twelve Years of Measuring Linguistic Diversity in the Internet: Balance and Perspectives virus 1980 purchase clindamycin 150mg. Redecker antibiotic tooth infection quality 150 mg clindamycin, Christine antibiotic garlic purchase clindamycin 300 mg, Kirsti Ala-Mutka antibiotics qt prolongation safe 300 mg clindamycin, Margherita Bacigalupo, Anusca Ferrari, and Yves Punie. Developing countries also often face challenges such as weak regulatory and legal frameworks and significant differences between rural and urban areas. As a result, they typically lag behind developed economies in broadband penetration (figure 7. This is particularly relevant for countries facing the challenge of development and looking to raise the standard of living of their citizens and foster social, human, and political progress. In that regard, it is useful to look at international objectives for promoting development and examine how broadband can be part of the strategy to achieve these goals. Broadband has taken on increased relevance within the development community because of its potential to reduce poverty and better enable countries to participate in the global information society. In the case of wireless broadband, refers to active subscriptions (using wireless broadband networks to access the Internet). Regions refer to developing-country members only (that is, non-high-income economies). It also reviews broadband bottlenecks and opportunities in developing nations, summarizes the broadband status of developing regions, identifies regional and national policies for boosting broadband penetration, and identifies groups of countries that face specific income, geographic, or other limiting conditions. The last section of the chapter provides summaries of broadband experiences in selected countries. Broadband and Global Goals for Developing Countries In September 2000, governments adopted the Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to reducing poverty monitored through measurable targets (box 7. For example, one of the barriers to achieving Goal 2 on universal primary education is the lack of primary school teachers. Broadband, in particular, can facilitate fast-track teacher training through distance education and e-learning. F: "In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications. Indeed, today the Internet is considered as a generalpurpose technology and access to broadband is regarded as a basic infrastructure, in the same way as electricity or roads. In other words, broadband is not an end unto itself but a means to an end (for example, broadband can be a means to achieving universal primary education). On the supply side, there are two broadband routes with different characteristics and market developments: wireline and wireless. Fiber optic broadband uses flexible glass enclosed by cables running directly to the home or building. Taking advantage of networks with greater capacity, however, requires additional investments in fiber optic networks. Many developing countries lack extensive wireline infrastructure, and investments in telephone, cable, and fiber optic networks often require new up-front costs. Given these constraints, the wireless broadband route appears more promising for many developing nations and is especially attractive for serving nonurban populations. Although the deployment costs of mobile broadband are less than those of wireline, they are still significant. Converting mobile networks to broadband readiness requires investment in spectrum and equipment by operators and the purchase of new devices by users. This results in high costs, at least initially, making mobile broadband more expensive for end users than current wireless services. Like mobile broadband, investments in spectrum and equipment are needed for terrestrial fixed wireless technologies, and it may not be feasible to leverage the existing mobile infrastructure in terms of towers and backbone networks. Satellite broadband is an option, particularly for remote locations, but it is more costly than other solutions for mass deployment and has usage limitations for some applications. Conditions vary across the developing world, and each country is endowed with differing levels of communication networks.
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Posttranslational modification Enzyme-mediated alterations of newly translated proteins best antibiotics for acne uk clindamycin 300mg, such as the addition of chemical groups including acetyl (see Acetylation) antibiotic acne order clindamycin 300 mg, carbohydrates (see Glycosylation) antibiotic resistance global threat 150mg clindamycin, methyl (see Methylation) antibiotic resistance in india cheap 150mg clindamycin, or phosphate (see Phosphorylation). It is distinct from incidence, which is the number of new cases of the disease arising in the population over a given time period. Receptor "A molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell. Regulatory science "The development and use of new tools, standards and approaches to more efficiently develop products and to more effectively evaluate product safety, efficacy and quality. Signature molecule "A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. A signature molecule may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition. When stem cells divide, they can form more stem cells or other cells that perform specialized functions. Embryonic stem cells have the potential to form a complete individual, whereas adult stem cells can only form certain types of specialized cells. Systems biology "The science of discovering, modeling, understanding, and ultimately engineering at the molecular level the dynamic relationships between the biological molecules that define living organisms. Tissue engineering "The process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects. One is the process of applying discoveries generated during research in the laboratory, and in preclinical studies, to the development of trials and studies in humans. The second area concerns research aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: Preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Others focus on research to understand the disease process and develop diagnostic tools, preventive interventions, or treatments. As illustrated by the example of the Progeria Research Foundation in Chapter 1 (Box 1-3), a focused organizational approach can, under some circumstances, contribute to progress in a relatively short period even for an extremely rare condition. Creating that focused organizational approach takes human and financial resources. Although the number of rare conditions for which there are advocacy groups has grown, a great many rare conditions lack research-focused advocacy organizations. Moreover, many existing rare diseases advocacy organizations have very limited funds to support research and are still developing the expertise and experience to support a focused research effort. The groups represented in this appendix were not selected because they are typical but because their work illustrates different elements and emphases of organizational research strategies. To some degree, new and established groups learn from and build on the experience of others, including some advocacy groups that focus on more common conditions and others that focus on rare conditions but have developed sophisticated research programs. Among rare diseases organization, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation has, in many respects, led the way in developing and implementing a systematic research strategy that is tailored to evolving research progress and scientific and technological opportunities. Two umbrella organizations, the National Organization for Rare Disorders and the Genetic Alliance, provide assistance to organizations trying to develop and implement research strategies. Organizational strategies may be highly focused on one segment along the spectrum from basic to clinical research or they may span the spectrum. For the organizations used as illustrative examples in this appendix, Table F-1 shows major differences. The years and definitions may not be completely consistent for the figures cited in the table, but they give a sense of the substantial range in organizational resources and the concentration of organizations in the lower end of the range. The accuracy of the excerpted materials has not been checked and their use does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement. The group has recently applied the same analytic strategy to frontotemporal dementia. The condition, which is usually seen in girls, can create problems with learning, speech, mood, sensation, movement, breathing, cardiac function, and digestion. This analysis was done to review and place into perspective the type of research funding provided by federal and private agencies, explore the overall pattern of research spending, determine where the bottlenecks lie and facilitate targeted funding for these areas. Overall, the purpose of this landscape analysis is to help identify existing resources and anticipate the future needs of the research community, with a specific emphasis on translational research. Each grant was mapped along a continuum from basic and etiologic research, through the stages of drug development and the clinical evaluation of treatments.
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